Saturday, January 11, 2014

Cheap Bicycle Alarm Schematics

The author wanted a very cheap and simple alarm for some of his possessions, such as his electrically assisted bicycle. This alarm is based on a cheap window alarm, which has a time-switch added to it with a 1-minute time-out. The output  pulse of the 555 replaces the reed switch in the window alarm. The 555 is triggered by a sensor mounted near the front  wheel, in combination with a magnet that is mounted on the spokes. This sensor and the magnet were taken from a cheap bicycle computer.

Circuit diagram :
Cheap Bicycle Alarm-Circuit Diagram
Cheap Bicycle Alarm Circuit Diagram

The front wheel of the bicycle is kept unlocked, so that the reed  switch closes momentarily when the wheel turns. This  triggers the 555, which in turn activates the window alarm. The circuit around the 555 takes very little current and can  be powered by the batteries in the window alarm.  There  is just enough room  left inside the enclosure of the window  alarm to mount the time-switch inside it.

The result is a very cheap, compact device, with only a single cable going to the reed switch on the front wheel. And the noise this thing produces is just unbelievable! After about one minute the noise stops and the alarm goes back into standby mode. The bicycle alarm should be mounted in an inconspicuous place, such as underneath the saddle, inside a (large) front light, in the battery compartment, etc.

Hopefully the alarm scares any potential thief away, or at least it makes other members of the public aware that something isnt quite right.

Caution. The installation and use of this circuit may be subject to legal restrictions in your country, state or area.

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Friday, January 10, 2014

Long Range Direct Conversion Receiver

     Using the circuit of direct-conversion receiver described here, one can listen to amateur radio QSO signals in CW as well as in SSB mode in the 40-metre band.

    The circuit makes use of three n-channel FETs (BFW10). The first FET (T1) performs the function of ant./RF amplifier-cum-product detector, while the second and third FETs (T2 and T3) together form a VFO (variable frequency oscillator) whose output is injected into the gate of first FET (T1) through 10pF capacitor C16. The VFO is tuned to a frequency which differs from the incoming CW signal frequency by about 1 kHz to produce a beat frequency note in the audio range at the output of transformer X1, which is an audio driver transformer of the type used in transistor radios.

    The audio output from transformer X1 is connected to the input of audio amplifier built around IC1 (TBA820M) via volume control VR1. An audio output from the AF amplifier is connected to an 8-ohm, 1-watt speaker.

    The receiver can be powered by a 12-volt power-supply, capable of sourcing around 250mA current. Audio output stage can be substituted with a readymade L-plate audio output circuit used in transistor amplifiers, if desired. The necessary data regarding the coils used in the circuit is given in the circuit diagram itself.

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30V Variable Power Supply Using LM317

This 30v variable power supply circuit is based on LM317  voltage regulator circuit . This LM317 30v variable power supply circuit can deliver high current (around 5 amps) and variable output voltage between 1.2 volts, up to 30 volts. The led D3 mounted on pin 6 at lm301 lights in constant current mode .

Circuit diagram 

Current limit can be adjusted using R2 potentiometer and the output voltage can be adjusted from 1.2 volts to 30 volts using R8 potentiometer . Input voltage for this variable power supply must be around 35 volts .For this power supply circuit you need to use LM317K circuit (in to3 package ) which must be mounted on a heatsink .
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Friday, December 27, 2013

Intelligent Electronic Lock

This intelligent electronic lock circuit is built using transistors only. To open this electronic lock, one has to press tactile switches S1 through S4 sequentially. For deception you may annotate these switches with different numbers on the control panel/keypad. For example, if you want to use ten switches on the keypad marked ‘0’ through ‘9’, use any four arbitrary numbers out of these for switches S1 through S4, and the remaining six numbers may be annotated on the leftover six switches, which may be wired in parallel to disable switch S6 (shown in the figure).

Intelligent Electronic Lock circuit diagram

When four password digits in ‘0’ through ‘9’ are mixed with the remaining six digits connected across disable switch terminals, energisation of relay RL1 by unauthorised person is prevented. For authorized persons, a 4-digit password number is easy to remember. To energise relay RL1, one has to press switches S1 through S4 sequentially within six seconds, making sure that each of the switch is kept depressed for a duration of 0.75 second to 1.25 seconds.

The relay will not operate if ‘on’ time duration of each tactile switch (S1 through S4) is less than 0.75 second or more than 1.25 seconds. This would amount to rejection of the code. A special feature of this circuit is that pressing of any switch wired across disable switch (S6) will lead to disabling of the whole electronic lock circuit for about one minute. Even if one enters the correct 4-digit password number within one minute after a ‘disable’ operation, relay RL1 won’t get energized.

So if any unauthorized person keeps trying different permutations of numbers in quick successions for energization of relay RL1, he is not likely to succeed. To that extent, this electronic lock circuit is fool-proof. This electronic lock circuit comprises disabling, sequential switching, and relay latch-up sections. The disabling section comprises zener diode ZD5 and transistors T1 and T2. Its function is to cut off positive supply to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections for one minute when disable switch S6 (or any other switch shunted across its terminal) is momentarily pressed.

During idle state, capacitor C1 is in discharged condition and the voltage across it is less than 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 are in non-conduction state. As a result, the collector voltage of transistor T1 is sufficiently high to forward bias transistor T2. Consequently, +12V is extended to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections. When disable switch is momentarily depressed, capacitor C1 charges up through resistor R1 and the voltage available across C1 becomes greater than 4.7 volts.

Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 start conducting and the collector voltage of transistor T1 is pulled low. As a result, transistor T2 stops conducting and thus cuts off positive supply voltage to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections. Thereafter, capacitor C1 starts discharging slowly through zener diode D1 and transistor T1. It takes approximately one minute to discharge to a sufficiently low level to cut-off transistor T1, and switch on transistor T2, for resuming supply to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections; and until then the circuit does not accept any code.

The sequential switching section comprises transistors T3 through T5, zener diodes ZD1 through ZD3, tactile switches S1 through S4, and timing capacitors C2 through C4. In this three-stage electronic switch, the three transistors are connected in series to extend positive voltage available at the emitter of transistor T2 to the relay latch-up circuit for energising relay RL1. When tactile switches S1 through S3 are activated, timing capacitors C2, C3, and C4 are charged through resistors R3, R5, and R7, respectively.

Timing capacitor C2 is discharged through resistor R4, zener diode ZD1, and transistor T3; timing capacitor C3 through resistor R6, zener diode ZD2, and transistor T4; and timing capacitor C4 through zener diode ZD3 and transistor T5 only. The individual timing capacitors are chosen in such a way that the time taken to discharge capacitor C2 below 4.7 volts is 6 seconds, 3 seconds for C3, and 1.5 seconds for C4. Thus while activating tactile switches S1 through S3 sequentially, transistor T3 will be in conduction for 6 seconds, transistor T4 for 3 seconds, and transistor T5 for 1.5 seconds.

The positive voltage from the emitter of transistor T2 is extended to tactile switch S4 only for 1.5 seconds. Thus one has to activate S4 tactile switch within 1.5 seconds to energise relay RL1. The minimum time required to keep switch S4 depressed is around 1 second. For sequential switching transistors T3 through T5, the minimum time for which the corresponding switches (S1 through S3) are to be kept depressed is 0.75 seconds to 1.25 seconds.

If one operates these switches for less than 0.75 seconds, timing capacitors C2 through C4 may not get charged sufficiently. As a consequence, these capacitors will discharge earlier and any one of transistors T3 through T5 may fail to conduct before activating tactile switch S4. Thus sequential switching of the three transistors will not be achieved and hence it will not be possible to energise relay RL1 in such a situation. A similar situation arises if one keeps each of the mentioned tactile switches de-pressed for more than 1.5 seconds.

When the total time taken to activate switches S1 through S4 is greater than six seconds, transistor T3 stops conducting due to time lapse. Sequential switching is thus not achieved and it is not possible to energise relay RL1. The latch-up relay circuit is built around transistors T6 through T8, zener diode ZD4, and capacitor C5. In idle state, with relay RL1 in de-energised condition, capacitor C5 is in discharged condition and zener diode ZD4 and transistors T7, T8, and T6 in non-conduction state.

However, on correct operation of sequential switches S1 through S4, capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R9 and the voltage across it rises above 4.7 volts. Now zener diode ZD4 as well as transistors T7, T8, and T6 start conducting and relay RL1 is energised. Due to conduction of transistor T6, capacitor C5 remains in charged condition and the relay is in continuously energised condition. Now if you activate reset switch S5 momentarily, capacitor C5 is immediately discharged through resistor R8 and the voltage across it falls below 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD4 and transistors T7, T8, and T6 stop conducting again and relay RL1 de-energises.
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Wednesday, December 25, 2013

Simple Microprocessor power supply watchdog circuit Diagram

The Simple Microprocessor power supply watchdog circuit Diagram monitors the input to the microprocessor 5 V regulated supply for voltage drops and initiates a reset sequence before supply regulation is lost. In operation, the resistor capacitor combination Rs and Cj form a short time constant smoothing network for the output of the fullwave bridge rectifier. 

An approximately triangular, voltage waveform appears across C and Rs and it is the minimum excursion of this that initiates the reset. Diode Dg prevents charge sharing between capacitors Cj and Ck. Resistors Rn and Rm form a feedback network around the voltage reference section of the LM10C, setting a threshold voltage of 3.4 volts. 

 Microprocessor power supply watchdog circuit Diagram

Simple Microprocessor power supply watchdog circuit Diagram

The threshold voltage is set at 90% of the minimum voltage of the triangular waveform. When the triangular wave trough, at the comparators non-inverting input, dips below the threshold, the comparator output is driven low. This presents a reset to the microprocessor. Capacitor Ch is charged slowly through resistor Rk and discharged rapidly through diode De.
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Monday, December 23, 2013

Build a Remotely Adjustable Solid State High voltage Supply Circuit Diagram

How to build a remotely adjustable solid state high-voltage supply Circuit Diagram. The output voltage changes approximately linearly up to 20 KV as the input voltage is varied from 0 to 5 V. The oscillator is tuned by a 5-0 potentiometer to peak the output voltage at the frequency of maximum transformer response between 45 and 55 kHz. 

The feedback voltage is applied through a 100-KO resistor, an op amp, and a comparator to a high-voltage amplifier. A diode and varistors on the primary side of the transformer protect the output transistor. The transformer is a flyback-type used in color-television sets. A feedback loop balances between the high-voltage output and the low-voltage input.

Remotely Adjustable Solid State High-voltage Supply Circuit Diagram

Remotely Adjustable Solid State High-voltage Supply Circuit Diagram
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Saturday, December 21, 2013

Battery Powered High voltage Generator Circuit Diagram

This is the battery powered high-voltage generator circuit diagram. Output voltage great enough to jump a l-inch gap can be obtained from a 12-V power source. A 555 timer IC is connected as an stable multi vibrator that produces a narrow negative pulse at pin 3. The pulse turns Ql on for the duration of the time period. The collector of Ql is direct-coupled to tbe base of tbe power transistor Q2, turning it on during the same time period. 

The emitter of Q2 is direct -coupled through current limiting resistor R5 to the base of the power transistor. Q3 switches on, producing a minimum resistance between the collector and emitter. The high-current pulse going through tbe primary of high-voltage transformer Tl generates a very high pulse voltage at its secondary output terminal (labeled X). The pulse frequency is determined by tbe values of Rl, R2, and C2. The values given in the parts list were chosen to give the best possible performance when an auto-ignition coil is used for Tl. 

Battery Powered High-voltage Generator Circuit Diagram

Battery Powered High-voltage Generator Circuit Diagram
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